Ultrasonography, abbreviated as USG is an important tool in treating female infertility. It is helpful in assessing and managing the infertility, successfully. It is also widely used during the antenatal care during pregnancy where the real time visual images are seen, measured and assessed for the developing fetus or the embryo within the mother’s womb.
It is a non-invasive imaging procedure that utilizes high frequency sound waves. Imaging is done usually with 3 methods
Transabdominal Sonography (TAS)
Where the probe is moved over the abdomen and the pelvic area to assess the conditions. It requires full bladder which serves as the acoustic window for higher frequency sound waves. It gives the accurate results, but cannot stabilize tissue diagnosis.
Transvaginal Sonography (TVS)
Here the probe is placed within in the women vagina to reach the target organ. It does not require full bladder, and can also help in obesity cases, which could not be done in TAS.
Transvaginal Color Doppler Sonography (TV-CDS)
This provides the additional information of the blood flow to, from or within an organ to diagnose the functionality of the organ.
Infertility Assessment - there is a serial measurement of ovarian follicular diameter and endometrial thickness.
Pelvic Mass Assessment - can be evaluated by its location and consistency. Clinical diagnosis can be made better in order to exclude pelvic mass by uterine fibroids, ovarian mass, endometriomas, tubo-ovarian mass etc.
Oncology - Transvaginal Color Doppler Sonography can help to access the vascularity of the mass, in case of low flow impedance with high flow velocity then there may be a malignant tumor.
Endometrial Disease - unexplained uterine bleeding or the postmenopausal bleeding can be better accessed.
It also helps in locating the misplaced IUD’s (Intrauterine contraceptive devices like copper T). It also helps in performing the sonography assisted surgical procedures like aspiration of the cystic mass and tubo-ovarian masses, follicular aspiration in case of ovum retrieval in IVF and in biopsies.
It helps to access the fetal growth, gestational age of the fetus, during the antenatal checkups.
Ultrasonography also has some role in evaluating the male infertility, to diagnose any abnormality in the testicles such as undescended testis, varicocele, testicular torsion and epididymal abnormalities.