This is the removal of the ovarian non-cancerous cysts through the aid of laparoscopy. There are different types of ovarian cysts such as follicular cysts, corpus luteum cysts, chocolate cysts or endometrial cysts and the most commonly known poly cystic ovarian tumours. Chocolate cysts and PCO’S are most common responsible cysts for the infertility. Cysts are referred to the solid or fluid filled pockets or sacs within single or both the ovaries.
The common symptoms of the ovarian cysts are painful periods, painful sex, pelvic pain, lower abdominal pain, irregular menstrual cycles, change in urinary frequency, constitutional symptoms such as fatigue and headache, increase in weight, increased facial and body hair and infertility. Cysts result in about 30% of the infertility cases. It is very common in nulliparous women aged between 25-35 years.
Most of the cysts are self-limiting or treatable by birth control medications but in non-resolving cysts, laparoscopic surgery can be helpful in treating. If not treated early this can result into the complications such as cyst rupture or ovarian torsion, leading to infertility.
During the laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy, only the cysts larger than 3 inches are targeted, as the other multiple smaller other cysts are treated by the oral hormonal medications. And only the healthy ovary is restored removing all the other ovarian cysts using the laparoscope. Laparoscopy can also be helpful to rule out any malignancy of the tumors with the help of biopsy of cyst done soon after the excision.
This is also called as laser vaporization or laparoscopic ovarian diathermy or laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD). This is done by the multiple (4-6 sites) puncture of the cysts only in poly cystic ovarian diseases and are done by diathermy or laser method by using a laser beam or surgical needles using minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. PCOD which is an important cause for the infertility due to its anovulatory cycles, can be corrected after this procedure, helping in increased chances of pregnancy. LOD is an easy outpatient procedure with minimal hospital stay and recovery period.