General Surgery

Breast Surgeries

Breast is the important organ in the female reproduction system. It helps in the lactation and in breast feeding. This important organ can sometimes get prone to medical conditions that can alter the shape and function of breast. Most of the breast conditions has to be treated by surgeries.

Acute Bacterial Mastitis commonly called as breast abscess. This medical condition occurs during the lactation due to the decreased feeding as a result of crack and fissures in the nipple. This leads to formation of lumps and then leads to abscess. The other causes are Staphylococcus aureus, which induces clotting of milk, oral cavity infection of the child and retracted nipples.

Symptoms for breast abscess are very painful, tender, swollen breasts and are warm to touch. Fever with chills and rigors. Usually one side of the breasts are inflamed, if both have abscess then milk can be expressed and boiled for feeding the infant.

Complications may lead to necrosis of the breast skin, ulceration and discharge.

Treatment for breast abscess includes Incision and Drainage. It is the most common method for draining the abscess along with administration of antibiotics. It is done under general anesthesia. After every feed, the nipples to be cleaned in lactating women.

Fibroadenosis is the fibrosis of the breast tissues due to the physiological changes in the breast, which is most commonly seen in females aged between 30 - 40 years. Breast feeding can prevent this fibrocystic mass.

Symptoms include severe pain in the breast before and during the menses. On examination, a cystic, nodular tender and hard lumps are palpable.

Treatment includes hormonal medicines, if not resolved then the Excision of the lump is done. FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology) of the lump is also done to rule out any malignancy.

Gynaecomastia is the medical condition associated with painful and abnormal enlargement of the male breast. There is the disk like tender lump, which can be touched and smooth in surface present on one side or both the sides.

Causes may be cancerous tumors, absent of testis, sex chromosomal abnormality and medicinal side effects.

Complications may lead to necrosis of the breast skin, ulceration and discharge.

Treatment includes the Mastectomy - removal of the entire breast or Lumpectomy- only the removal of the lump is done with the restoration of the normal breast.

Fibroadenoma is the non-cancerous tumour affecting the breast tissue. Females between 20-40 years are mostly affected. They are painless lumps, which are smooth, round bordered, firm or hard in consistency and are free to move within the breast.

Treatment for fibroadenoma includes removal of the lump, if the lump is superficial then removed by periareolar incision and if the lump is deeper, then it is removed by submammary incision.

Carcinoma of Breast is the most common medical condition found in middle aged women. Causes are chromosomal abnormalities, obesity, increased production of estrogen, risk factors also include early menarche and late menopause, women with no breast feeding. Carcinoma of breast can be different types such as scirrhous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma and inflammatory carcinoma, carcinoma in situ and comedo carcinoma of breast. Symptoms are painless lumps which may be firm and irregular in shape. Nipple can be cracked, ulcerated painful with thick white discharge or bleeding may be present, peau d’orange a characteristic symptom- appearance of orange colour breast on elevating the nipples.

Treatment depends on the stages of the cancer, but mainly it includes Lumpectomy, Simple mastectomy(removal of the breast), Radical mastectomy ( total removal of the breast along with the breast tissues, nipple and areola).

breast surgeries
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