The bowel surgeries includes the correction of both small and large intestinal medical conditions through surgery. The common medical conditions pertaining to bowel that requires surgery are;
Leiomyoma - They are the benign tumors arising from the small intestine which affect other organs, uterus and esophagus too. This non-cancerous bowel tumor arising from the mesenchyma has rare possibilities of turning into cancerous tumor. Symptoms are internal bleeding and blood in the stools. Surgical excision is the method adopted.
Villous Adenomas - It is a polyp of the colon and the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms are diarrhea resulting in Hypokalemia (decreased potassium levels). This can be diagnosed on endoscopy as a cauliflower like growths.
Total colon resection is the surgical procedure adopted.
Lipomas - They are soft, round fatty tissues, present in the inner lining of the intestines and can be found on external skin too. They vary in size and number and are usually painless. When the lipomas are large and obstructing the lumen of the intestines then it has to be removed by surgical excision.
Hemangiomas - They are small benign tumors affecting the bowels and skin. These are the blood filled, flat, irregular and non-painful. But the symptoms arise when these tumors get irritated and are ruptured resulting in bleeding ulcers in bowels and anemia. Surgery includes the excision of the tumor along with the residual fibrofatty tissues.
Adenocarcinoma - These are the tumor growths affecting intestines. They can lead to the bowel cancer or the colorectal cancer. Risk factors are poor diet, obesity, smoking, crohn’s disease and lack of physical activity. Symptoms are bloody stool, irregular bowel movements, unexplained weight loss and lassitude. Depending on the staging, cure or palliation done. In early diagnosis colostomy is done where the affected part is completely removed. In later stages, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are advised.
Intestinal Lymphoma - They are cancerous tumors arising from the lymphnodes due to the result of celiac diseases. Person’s with weak immunity have greater risks of this cancer. Symptoms include deficient absorption of foods, bloody stools, abdominal pain, constipation and unexplained weight loss. Treatment depends on staging, wide excision is done to remove the affected part along with radiotherapy.